双色球字谜诗谜汇总

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                媒体专区

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                不要忽视不起眼的有刷直流电机
                发布:2018-11-28
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                从无刷直流电机诞生,“古老的”有刷电机就开始没落,但它依然是低成本应用的可靠选择。

                在有刷电机中,磁极方向的跳转是通过移动固定位置的接触点来完成的,该接触点在电机转子上与电触点相对连接。这种固定触点通常由石墨制成,与铜或其他金属相比,在大电流短路或断路/起动过程中石墨不会熔断或者与旋转触点焊接到一起,并且这个触点通常是弹簧承载的,所以能够获得持续的接触压力。

                在20世纪,大中型有刷电机在工业和先进制造领域中发挥着巨大的作用,直流电机的基本理论也被查尔斯·斯坦梅茨(Charles Steinmetz)等杰出人物广泛分析,这包括详细的,电动势、磁场方程、性能参数(速度,扭矩,控制和效率)、设计、制造等。几十年来,直流电机理论和与应用的课程几乎是所有工科专业的标准课程,这些课程包含全面的小型和大型电动机实验室课程。

                YOUYUSHIYONGMOSFETHEIGBTZUOWEIDIANJIDEKAIGUANJIQIGENGJIASHIYONG、GENGJIAJINGJIKEKAODEKONGZHIFANGSHI,ZAOZAIJISHINIANQIAN,YOUSHUADIANJIDEYOUSHIBIANKAISHISHUAILUO。QUERDAIZHIDESHIWUSHUAZHILIU(BLDC)DIANJIJIQIBIANTI,RUBUJINDIANJI,ZHEIXIEDIANJIZHUJIANCHENGWEIZHULIUDEZHILIUDIANJI。XIANZAI,WUSHUDE,CIPANQUDONGQI,DAYINJIYIJIZHONGXIAOXINGSHEBEIDENGDOUSHIYONGLEWUSHUAZHILIUDIANJI。

                ZHEIZHONGZHUANBIANDEYUANYINHENXIANRAN:SHIYONGKAIGUANQIJIAN,QUDONGQIHEZHINENGKONGZHIQIDEXIANJINSHEBEISHIDIANJIXITONGZAIXIAOLV、KEKAOXING、DIANQIZAOSHENG、KEKONGXINGHEDUOGONGNENGXINGDENGFANGMIANBIANDEGENGYOUXIU。ZHEIXIEBLDCDIANJIMEIYOUSHUAZIMOSUN,YEBUHUIYINQIEMI / RFI。YINCI,SUIZHEWUSHUATIDAIPINDESHIYONG,BDCDIANJIDESHIYONGLIANGJIJUXIAJIANG。

                尽管从有刷电机到无刷电机发生了巨大的转变,但在能够满足必要的性能,低成本和足够的可靠性的前提下,有刷电机依旧是一个很好的选择。如便宜的玩具以及一些功能简单的应用场合,如汽车的电动座椅等。

                更进一步的,综合使用最新的控制器、MOSFET / IGBT开关,并且充分了解其局限性,就可以让电极提供足够好的性能。由于它们几乎不需要电子控制装置,所以整个电机控制系统相当便宜。此外,基本的BDC电机在和电机之间只需要两根电缆,这样就可以节省配线和连接器所需的空间,并降低电缆和连接器的成本。

                有刷电机基础

                SUOYOUDIANJI(TESHUDECHUWAI,LIRUYADIANDIANJI)DEGONGZUODOUYILAIYUDINGZIYUZHUANZIDIANCICHANGZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZUOYONG,ZHEIXIEDIANCICHANGBEIKONGZHI,CONGERZHOUQIXINGDEZAIDINGZIHEZHUANZIZHIJIANCHANSHENGYINLIHECHILI,JINERYINQIYUNDONG,RUTU1HETU2SUOSHI。

                1.jpg

                TU1:WUSHUAZHILIUDIANJIWAIBUCICHANG(YOUYONGCITITIGONG),DIANSHUA,DIANSHUSHANGDEHUANXIANGQIJIYUNDONGYUANLI。

                TUPIANLAIYUAN:http://www.cyberphysics.co.uk

                2.jpg

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总TU2:YOUSHUAZHILIUDIANJIZAIQIDIANSHUSHANGRAOYOUDALIANGDEXIANQUAN,SUOCHANSHENGQIANGDADECICHANGYUWAIBUCICHANG(CICHUYOUYONGCITITIGONG)XIANGHUZUOYONGCHANSHENGXUANZHUANYUNDONG。

                TUPIANLAIYUAN:Clemson University

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总JIBENDEYOUSHUADIANJIYIJINGWANQUANJIXIEHUA,BUXUYAODIANZISHEBEICANYU。KONGZHIYESHIFENJIANDAN:LIANJIEZHILIUDIANYUAN,DIANJIZIQIDONGRANHOUXUANZHUAN。YOUYUXIAOJIECHUJIAODUXINGCHENGYIGE“SIQU”,SUOYIYOUSHUAZHILIUDIANJIYOUZHEQIANZAIDEQIDONGWENTI,DANZHEIKEYITONGGUOYIXIEJIXIESHEJIDIAOZHENGLAIJIEJUE。

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总YAOSHIXIANFANXIANGXUANZHUAN,ZHIXUJIANGZHILIUDIANYUANXIANDUIDIAO,YAODIAOZHENGYUNDONGSUDU(ZAIYOUXIANDEFANWEINEI),ZHIXUYAOSHENGGAOHUOJIANGDIGONGDIANDIANYA。YIBANLAISHUO,BDCDIANJIDEZHUANSUYUQILICIXIANQUANDEDIANDONGSHI(EMF)CHENGZHENGBI(EMFSHISHIJIAYUQISHANGDEDIANYAJIANQUYOUYUDIANZUSUNSHIDEDIANYA),ERZHUANJUYUDIANLIUCHENGBILI。

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总NEIMEYOUSHUADIANJISHIRUHECHANSHENGSHIQIDIANSHUXUANZHUANSUOXUDEXUANZHUANCICHANG,ERWUXUWAIBUKONGZHIQIDENI?SHIDIANJIZIJIWANCHENGZHEIXIANGGONGZUODE。ZAIDIANJIQIAOTISHANGYOUYIDUI180°FENKAIDEDIANSHUA,ZHEIDUIDIANSHUATONGGUOLIANGGEHUANXIANGQICHUDIAN(JINSHUBAN)JIANGSHIJIADEDIANLIUYINDAODAODIANSHUXIANQUANSHANG;MEIGEJINSHUBANFUGAIJIN180°DEDIANSHU。DANGDIANJIZHUANDONGSHI,DIANYUAN,DIANSHUA,HUANXIANGQIJINSHUBANHELIANGGEDIANJIXIANQUAN(RAOZU)ZHIJIANDEDIANLIUHUILUMEIZHUANBANQUANJIUZIDONGQIEHUANYICI。

                DIANSHUDECICHANGYUZHUANZIDECICHANGXIANGHUZUOYONG,ZHUANZIDECICHANGKEYITONGGUODIANJIBENTISHANGDEGUDINGXIANQUANCHANSHENG,YEKEYITONGGUOYONGCITICHANSHENG。DANGZHUANZIZHUANDONGSHI,QICICHANGFANGXIANGYEYAOFANZHUAN,CONGERDIANJIBAOCHIZHUANDONG,YINWEIXIANQUANCHANSHENGDECICHANGDEFANGXIANGSHIYIZHIQIEHUANDE,BINGQIEBEIWAIBUXIANQUANHUOYONGCITICHANSHENGDECICHANGXIYIN/PAICHI。

                QINGZHUYI,YIZHILAI,YONGCITIDESHIYONGFANWEIJINXIANYUWEIXINGDIANJI,LIRUWANJU,YINWEIZAICHICUNHEZHONGLIANGDOUBIJIAOHELIDEQINGKUANGXIA,CITIDEQIANGDUBINGBUZUGOUDA。DANSHI,SHIYONGXITUCAILIAODEGAONENGLIANGYONGCITIDEFAZHANGAIBIANLEZHEIGEJUMIAN,ZHEISHIDEJIYUPMDEBDCDIANJISHIYONGYUDAXINGDIANJI,JISHIZAIFENMALIFANWEINEIYESHIRUCI。JINGUANYOUYUWAIBULICIXIANQUANBUXUYAODIANYUANERSHIDEPMFANGFAXIAOLVGENGGAO,DANTAHUIJIANGDIXITONGKONGZHIDIANJIXINGWEIDEZIYOUDU。WULUNSHIPM BDCDIANJIHAISHILICIXIANQUANDESHEJI,DOUXUYAOQUANHENGCHICUN、CHENGBEN、ZHONGLIANG、KONGZHIXUYAODENGYINSU。

                超越基本有刷电机

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总ZAIJIBENXINGSHIZHONG,BDCDIANJISHIYOUYAHEJIANDANDEDIANFAN。SHISHISHANG,XUDUOWEINIANQINGRENTIGONGDEJICHUKEXUEGONGJUDOUSHISHIYONGYIGEJIANDANDELASIMADALAIZHANSHIDIANXUEHECIXUEDEJIBENYUANLIYIJITAMENZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZUOYONGSHIRUHECHANSHENGYOUXIAOYUNDONGDE,RUTU3SUOSHI。ZHEIGEGUOCHENGBUXUYAODIANZIQIJIAN,BINGQIESUOYOUDEDONGZUOHEDIANLIULUJINGDOUSHIKEJIANDE。

                3.jpg

                TU3:MEIYOUBIZHEIGEXUESHENGXIANGMUBANBENGENGJIANDANDIANJILE,TASHIYONGYONGCITICHANSHENGWAIBU(DINGZI)CICHANG,SHIYONGHUIXINGZHENZUOWEIDIANSHUA,SHIYONGXIAOXIANQUANZUOWEIDIANSHURAOZUXIANQUAN; TAZHIJIETONGGUOYUNXING。

                所讨论的BDC电机是这样的:简单和基本。然而,鉴于这些电机的许多应用和规格已经被投入使用有100多年了,所以开发者也设计出许多新的变体来克服电机的某些弱点或者在特定应用中优化其性能。其中有许多变体集中于通过改变定子的励磁线圈和电枢线圈。而一些其他的变体通过永久性或者暂时性添加电容器和电阻器来调整电压,限制电流或者改变电压/电流的相位关系。

                ZAISHIJIANZHONG,DADUOSHUZHILIUDIANJIDOUBUJINJINSHILIANGGEJIANDANBANBENDIANSHUJIDEZUHE。CHULEQITAHAOCHUWAI,GENGDUODEJIDIANKESHIDIANJICONGRENHEXUANZHUANJIAODUGENGKEKAODIQIDONG(JIANDANBANBENYOULIANGGEXIAODESIQU)。ERQIE,ZHEIYANGDEDIANJIBUYUNXUSHUNTAIDUANLUDIANLIUTONGGUO,YOUXIEXITONGMEIZHUANYUNXUYOULIANGCIDUANZANDEDUANLUDIANLIUTONGGUO,DANSHIHENDUOXITONGDOUBUNENGZUODAOZHEIYIDIAN。

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总DINGZIDELICIXIANQUANYOUDUOZHONGPEIZHI,RUTU4SUOSHI。ZUICHANGJIANDEPEIZHISHICHUANLIANRAOZU,FENLIURAOZUHEFUHERAOZU(CHUANLIANHEFENLIUDEZUHE)。ZAICHUANLIANRAOZUSHIDIANDONGJIZHONG,LICIXIANQUANYUDIANSHUXIANQUAN(TONGGUODIANSHUA)CHUANLIAN;ZAIFENLIURAOZUSHIDIANDONGJIZHONG,LICIXIANQUANYUDIANSHUXIANQUANBINGLIAN(“FENLIU”SHIYONGYU“BINGLIAN”DELINGYIZHONGBIAOSHUFANGSHI)。

                4.jpg

                TU4 :(CONGZUODAOYOU)ZAICHUANLIANRAOZUJIEGOUZHONG,LICIXIANQUANS1-S2YUDIANSHUXIANQUANA1-A2CHUANLIAN; DUIYUFENLIURAOZU,LICIXIANQUANF1-F2YUDIANSHUXIANQUANA1-A2BINGLIAN; DUIYUFUHEFANGSHI,LICIXIANQUANS1-S2CHUANLIAN,F1-F2YUDIANSHUXIANQUANA1-A2BINGLIAN。

                TUPIANLAIYUAN:

                MEIZHONGBUXIANFANGSHIDOUTIGONGLEBUTONGDEKONGZHI、SUDUXINGNENGYIJINIUJU,QIDONGHEYUNXINGZHUANJUYIJICHULIFUZAIBIANHUADENENGLI。YIXIEXIANJINDESHEJIDUIDINGZIDELICIRAOZUHEZHUANZIDEDIANSHURAOZUSHIYONGDULIDELICIKONGZHI,YIHUODEGENGDADELINGHUOXINGHEGENGYANGEDEKONGZHI。

                有刷电机进入21世纪

                尽管BLDC电机有许多优点,但有刷电机仍然可用,并且其性能正在逐渐提高。虽然电机的设计方式在许多方面相对不变,但仍有两个重要的发展:其一是永磁体得到了广泛使用,另一个是IC和电子开关被用于线圈驱动和功能反馈。

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总RUTU5SUOSHI,Digilent DE290-008SHI6V BDCDIANJIDEYIGELIZI。TABAOKUOYIGE1:53JIANSUCHILUNXIANG,YONGYUTIGAONIUJU,EDINGZHIWEI0.7 kgf-cm(ZUIDAZHI)。JINGUANDIANYUANLIANJIEZHIXUYAOLIANGGENDAOXIAN,DANDIANJI/BIANSUXIANGHAIDAIYOUYIGELIUYINJIAOLIANJIEQI。QITASIGEDAOXIANYONGYULIANJIEJICHENGHUOERXIAOYINGQIDUI,GAICHUANGANQIDUIYONGYUBIAOSHIZHUANSHUHEFANGXIANG,SHIYONGBIAOZHUNDEA-BZHENGJIAOFANGFA。

                5.jpg

                TU5:DigilentDE290-008XING6 VZHILIUDIANJISHIJIBENYOUSHUADIANJIDEYIGEHENHAODELIZI。TABUDANXUYAOWEIDIANYUANFENPEIDAOXIAN,HAIBAOKUOYIDUIHUOERXIAOYINGQIJIANHESIGEEWAIDEDIANXIAN,YONGYUGANYINGFANKUIKONGZHISUOXUDEXUANZHUANHEFANGXIANG。

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总TUPIANLAIYUAN:Digilent

                该电机在6V电压下自主运行时的空载电流为220mA,速度为150RPM; 125RPM情况下的满载额定电流为480mA,失速电流为1.8A,转矩为4.1kgf-cm。这个小型电机及齿轮箱(长度54mm,直径22mm,加上连接器)的线圈电阻仅为3.3Ω。图6的曲线图显示了在6V电源供电情况下五个关键参数之间的相互影响:1)转矩,2)转速,3)电流,4)输出,5)效率。

                6.jpg

                TU6:GAITUXIANSHILEDigilent DE290-008DIANJIDEZHUYAOCAOZUOCANSHU,YIJITAMENZAIZHENGGECAOZUOFANWEINEIDEBIANHUAQINGKUANG。

                TUPIANLAIYUAN:Digilent

                尽管无刷电机可以直接通过直流电源运行,但使用“合适的”驱动器件不仅能提供必要的驱动电流,而且还能提供几乎每个电机子系统所需的各种保护功能。德州仪器(TI)DRV8412双路全桥PWM电机驱动器是DRV8x系列集成电机驱动器中的一员,可处理两个独立的无刷电机(以及步进电机)。它具有很高的驱动效率(高达97%),可以最大限度地减少散热和相关问题,如图7所示,它可以为电机提供2×7A(连续)或2×12A(峰值)的驱动电流。

                7.jpg

                图7:德州仪器(TI)的DRV8412双电机驱动器不仅能处理两个独立的有刷电机,还能为各种故障,过热和过流情况提供保护。

                图片来源:德州仪器

                双色球字谜诗谜汇总WEIXINGXINPIAN(JIN14.00mm×6.10mm)JUYOUBAOHUXITONG,NENGGOUBAOHUSHEBEIYIMIANSHOUDAOGEZHONGGUZHANGDESUNHAI。ZHEIXIEBAOKUODUANLUBAOHU,GUODIANLIUBAOHU,QIANYABAOHUHELIANGJIREBAOHU。CIWAI,TAHAIYOUYIGEXIANLIUDIANLU,KEYIFANGZHIZAIFUZAISHUNBIANGUOCHENGZHONGSHEBEIYIN“CUOWU”ERGUANDUAN,BIRUDIANJIQIDONGGUOCHENG(XIANGDANGYUSHIYONGMANSURONGDUANQIERBUSHIKUAISURONGDUANQI)。KEBIANCHENGGUODIANLIUTANCEQIKEYIDIAOJIEDIANLIUXIANZHIHEBAOHUSHUIPING,YIMANZUBUTONGDEDIANJIYAOQIU。

                GAIXILIECHANPINDEMEIGEBANQIAODOUYOUDULIDEDIANYUANHEJIEDIYINJIAO,ZHEIYANGJIUKEYITONGGUOWAIBUFENLIUDIANZUDUIDIANLIUJINXINGCELIANG,BINGQIEZHICHIYOUBUTONGDIANYUANDIANYAGONGDIANDEDUOGEDIANJITONGSHISHIYONG。DANGLIANGGEDIANJIYINCHICUNBUTONGERXUYAOBUTONGDEDIANYUANDIANYASHI,ZHEIYANGDESHEJISHIFEICHANGYOUYONGDE,LIRUGUANGGAOXIANSHIPINGXUYAOXIAOXINGDIANJIHUIDONGYINRENZHUMUDEBIAOZHI,TONGSHIXUYAOGENGDADEDIANJILAIXUANZHUANZHENGGEXIANSHIQI。

                总 结

                毫无疑问,由于许多可靠的技术原因,直流供电的有刷电机在很大程度上已经被电子控制的无刷电机取代。尽管如此,在要求不高,对成本敏感的应用或者要求有限的情况下,有刷电机仍然是一个有效的方案。通过将有刷电机与基本电机驱动器IC相结合,有刷电机和最终产品就可以实现许多额外的操作并且拥有更好的保护措施。显然,在没有查看BDC电机的设计目标和属性的情况下就认为无刷电机是正确的选择,这样的想法是目光短浅的表现。

                end

                来源于电子工程专辑丨侵删

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